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Studies in the Age of Chaucer
  1. Geoffrey Chaucer
  2. Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: Geoffrey Chaucer's 'The Parliament of Fowls'
  3. (PDF) Memory, Men and Chaucer | Zuleyha Cetiner-Oktem -

Peter Lang.

  1. Bibliography.
  2. Hallelujah : A Story of Cancer, Love, and Grace;
  3. A Sureness of Hand:The Art of Marie-Rose Coenegrachts?
  4. Geoffrey Chaucer.
  5. Taking Ryan.
  6. 1. Introduction.
  7. Say it With Poetry: Chaucer and Langland | History of Philosophy without any gaps!

Search Close. Advanced Search Help. Show Less Restricted access. Methods of representing individual voices were a primary concern for Geoffrey Chaucer. While many studies have focused on how he expresses the voices of his characters, especially in The Canterbury Tales , a sustained analysis of how he represents his own voice is still wanting.

Drawing from recent developments in narratology, the history of reading, and theories of orality, this book considers how Chaucer adapts various rhetorical strategies throughout his poetry and prose to define himself and his audience in relation to past literary traditions and contemporary culture.

Geoffrey Chaucer

Buy Print Book. Currency depends on your shipping address. Appendix a Transcription of Stanza 10 to Stanza 20 of the Gg. In the Middle Ages rhetoric played a much more important role than it does nowadays. Replaced by sciences like aesthetics, psychology or stylistics [1] in our time rhetoric was of central interest in scholarly life back then.

Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: Geoffrey Chaucer's 'The Parliament of Fowls'

It was not simply reduced to the science of tropes and figures like it is often done nowadays but there was much more to it in the Middle Ages. Based on the rhetorical tradition of the antiquity rhetoric was the art of speech, which already shows that it was a broad subject. It will therefore be of importance to give a general overview of rhetoric in those days and to look at one author in particular to illustrate how rhetoric was used.

One of the most important and best known authors of the Middle Ages is Geoffrey Chaucer.

That is why he will be considered as a representative of the rhetoricians of his time in this term paper. The following chapters will deal with rhetoric in the Middle Ages in general and with Chaucer as a rhetorician of that time in particular. While reading Chaucer it has to be kept in mind that his poems were not published as books to be read but were presented to an audience.

(PDF) Memory, Men and Chaucer | Zuleyha Cetiner-Oktem -

Rhetorical devices were originally used to make a text or speech aesthetic and persuasive and nowadays they are often used as the starting point for interpretations of a text because it is assumed that there must be a connection between the style and the meaning of a poem. Nevertheless some rhetorical features cannot be explained without looking at certain possible interpretations of them. According to The Oxford Companion to Chaucer rhetoric is the art of persuasion and affection of people, which derived from the ancient world [2] , where it had been used in courts genus iudicale , for political matters genus deliberativum or to honour a person genus demonstrativum [3].

All in all rhetoric was used to persuade people and thus to have an influence on their way of thinking and their behaviour. The most important rhetoricians in those times were Aristotle — B.

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  • Rhetoric can be learned and practised because it sticks to certain rules and during the Middle Ages it was taught as one of the seven liberal arts septem artes liberales , which could be subdivided into the trivium rhetoric, grammar, dialectic and the quadrivium astronomy, arithmetic, music, geometry. These are inventio the finding of arguments that support the topic , dispositio the arrangement of arguments , elocutio the choice of appropriate and aesthetic words to convey the message and the inclusion of tropes and figures , memoria to learn the text or speech by heart and pronuntiatio to give the speech effectively to the audience [5].

    In the process of inventio the arguments, evidences and ideas, which were used to persuade the audience, could be found in so-called loci communes or commonplaces , which are collections of arguments for certain topics.

    Lines 1 through 25 of the parliament of fowls. Clarissa Powell.

    The arguments were subdivided into natural arguments probationes inartificiales , which are based on facts, and artificial arguments probationes artificiales , which are examples or arguments that refer to the emotions of the audience, are non-factual and depend on the experiences of the speaker [6]. Commonplaces are motifs, which are based on the topoi that derived from the antiquity.

    They are generally valid and are not bound to a certain subject. By knowing these commonplaces the speaker was independent from inventing new motifs but could choose suitable arguments systematically from those that already existed and thus refer to generally accepted knowledge [7]. As Neumann points out, they were closely related to the knowledge of society and thus open to interpretation [8].

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    According to Cicero the speech has to be subdivided into three parts: the introduction, the main part and the conclusion. In the introduction the audience has to be addressed exordium. In the main part the topic needs to be introduced propositio and a narration should be included narratio. Then the speaker should comment on the topic argumentatio by supporting the own point of view probationes and refusing the opposing one refutatio. Finally, in the third part, a persuasive conclusion needs to be drawn conclusio [9]. To make a text more persuasive and aesthetic language-ornaments like figures of diction such as anaphora and tropes such as metonymy that were chosen in the process of elocutio were used.

    Neumann mentions that, besides the inclusion of language-ornaments ornatus , a text or speech should be understandable and appropriate with regard to the audience perspicuitas and aptum , the language should be correct puritas, latinitas and the text or speech should only be as long as necessary brevitas. Rhetoric was supposed to teach docere , please delectare or affect movere people [10] and it was used for the exegesis of the bible, the art of preaching ars praedicandi , the composition of letters ars dictaminis or the creation of poetical texts ars versificandi [11].

    The latter one shows that this was the time when rhetoric found its way into literature and got strongly connected with poetry. The main connection between literature and rhetoric, however, was created via grammar, which dealt with tropes and figures and the interpretations of poets [12]. It is also possible that he had studied some manuals on rhetoric at school or that he had got to know tropes and figures, which he used in his poems, while learning Latin grammar, because there was a connection between grammar and rhetoric in the Middle Ages as both belonged to the trivium [13].

    Due to the fact that his poems were rather intended to be told to an audience than to be read by a single reader, an oral manner plays an important role in his writings. These references are typical devices of oral storytelling and make the poems appear like speeches.

    1. Dreaming with Scipio.
    2. The New Chaucer Society › Studies in the Age of Chaucer.
    3. SCM Studyguide Old Testament.
    5. I Wont Let You Die!?
    6. The Canterbury Tales - Wikipedia.